Warrant Entire Internet-Is ethical?
Before starting the discussion on ‘Warrant Entire Internet’ or ‘warrant for internet users including journalists and whistle-blowers’ , the current state of social life, human rights, digital life, internet, terrorism ,fraudulent activities should be taken into an account. At this stage, the world is suffering through a lot of terrorism issues. Governments of every state are fighting against the terrorism in online and battle field. In another side of the issue, government is about to enforce the laws against the privacy in civilians in the name of security (Riedel, 2014). The internet is made up of millions of computers from all around the world, linked to each other by a network of telephone lines, cables and satellite connections. So, internet can be termed as the network of network.These days, life without internet is almost impossible. It is believed that the world wouldn’t be in this stage if there was no invention of internet. Most of the people are using internet for sharing of information, expression of ideas, rage against the government acts and bills and ultimately for creating the group for their own interests. Some handful of criminals, terrorists, hackers, crackers are using internet for cyber crimes. Cyber crime is not acceptable in the society (Telecommunications data retention-an overview, 2014). In the name of terrorism, government wants to put spy agencies to track down all the informational privacy of all the civilians in the internet to their big data for security reason. If there is any suspect, they can warrant the users including journalist and whistle-blowers. Is it right to handcuff the internet users in a single warrant? What about the freedom of expression? These are issues should be discussed in this essay based on ethical theories.Warrant Entire Internet in now a hot debate to discuss.Warrant Entire Internet can be a threat.
As far as the case is concerned about Warrant Entire Internet,nowadays, online services have come to define our every activity in ways unimaginable just a decade before. The extensive flows of information have become natural and unquestioned features of our life these days and this is our world now. This is possible due to rapid development of online services ranging from social media to commerce and virtual collaboration (Hope, 2011).Due to unpredictable, pervasive and rapid development in online services has brought the changing interaction between ICT and society which brings ethical dilemmas for how to protect and maintain the freedom of expression and privacy online.Warrant Entire Internet is now a social issue.
As far as the case is concerned about Warrant Entire Internet,according to Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the international Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Right, freedom of expression and privacy are explicit parts of this international framework of human rights and are enabling rights that facilitate the meaningful realization of other human rights. Human rights include the right to privacy and right to freedom of expression. The right to have privacy enables us to have our thoughts, secrets, ideology, identity, belief as a separate entity. The freedom of expression also enables us to keep our thoughts without any interference from other and also not applicable to others. The sixty-eighth general assembly of UN has amended these rights to be implemented on both the online and physical under the draft resolution ’Right to privacy in digital age’ (Committee, 2013).Warrant Entire Internet should be discoursed.Warrant Entire Internet is against right to privacy.
As far as the case is concerned about Warrant Entire Internet,an act of spying is related to obtain secret information concerning its potential or actual enemies or about its competitors or keep eyes on the activities of others. Warrant is anything that gives authority for an action or decision; authorization; sanction. An authorization issued by a magistrate or other official allowing a constable or other officer to search or seize property, arrest a person, or perform some other specified act is regarded as the warrant. A warrant can be issued after executing the mass surveillance on the people’s privacy. A warrant creates the psychological threats on the general users who simply use internet just for fun. So, it adversely affects the people’s way of life. According to Sydney Morning Herald, Spy agency ASIO will be given the power to monitor the entire Australian internet and journalists’ ability to write about national security which creates fear in academics, media organizations, lawyers, the Greens party and rights groups. If there is fear exists in the society, then it will explode soon in the form of terrorism or so called revolt (International Terrorism, 2014). According to the U.S. State Department, contained in Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(d).The term ‘terrorism’ means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant* targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. To create fear in public about the use of internet is also a kind of terror (International Terrorism, 2014). It an offence if a person discloses information relates to a special intelligence operation and does not state any public interest exemptions, meaning it could apply to anyone including journalists or somebody sharing an item on Facebook could be jailed for ten years for basically disclosing information in the public interest. So, it means there is intervention in the work of media and of journalists, to persecute whistleblowers and indeed journalists who are dealing with whistleblowers. Publishing stories like many of the Edward Snowden revelations, including the revelation about the tapping of government phones in Indonesia, could well become a criminal offence in the future rather than a public interest matter.Warrant Entire Internet can not be only a official issue.
As far as the case is concerned about Warrant Entire Internet,We explore the possibility that the media may reflect and/or enhance broader social phenomena weakening political involvement (Toril Aalberg, 2010) (Hope, 2011).It simply speaks against the privacy and freedom of the human and ultimately against the human rights. The leading privacy and free expression groups worldwide have concluded that mass government spying has violated right to privacy and infringed right to freedom of expression and association. These groups also suggest the civilians to use the encrypted software tool like TOR to communicate in the internet which makes very hard for the government and criminals to break down the privacy of the individuals. But, NSA and GCHQ unlock encryption used to protect emails, banking and medical records to spy on public. Media freedom and democratization have a symbiotic relationship (Gunther, 2000).Countries become more democratic, mass media come to assume a critical role, and as media become freer, their role increases. There are global movements and people are standing up against unprecedented posing of government monopoly (Lawrence, 2014).Government will engage in corruption which is misuse of entrusted power for private gain (Transparency International, 2010b). Personal freedom seems to be at odds with security everywhere we look around these days, both in tangible and non tangible form issuing conflict between the citizens and their governments in the digital world. When the government gets all the information about privacy of the civilians, the government will turn to be like autocratic (Tavani, 2013). In autocratic system, it is very hard to practice the freedom of expression of ideas which is the real threat to the humanity and freedom. The greater exposure to news leads to gains in public affairs knowledge, as well as to an increased sense of being informed. Enhanced confidence fuels greater political interest, contributing in turn to increased exposure to news (Norris, 2000).Warrant Entire Internet should be – Is social?
As far as the case is concerned about Warrant Entire Internet,The duty based ethical theories like deontology and contract based ethical theory clearly opposes the warrant for internet users including journalists and whistle-blowers. Government will grab all the personal information of people without their consent and manipulate them in their favor. It makes the government autocratic in nature and misconduct the human values which leads toward the dissatisfaction toward the life. In 2008 there were two cases of police officers accessing data for their own purposes. One police officer used information to harass and intimidate an innocent woman; another used his access to criminal records to gain access about his partners’ family. In 2008 the Liverpool Lib Dem council obtained the phone records of the leader of the council opposition to get all the information about them. In 2004 police, along with a private detective agency, were involved in illegal phone tapes. In 2002 a WPC used police databases to locate a woman she believed was having an affair with her husband (Example of data misuse, 2014).These are the example of data misuses by government official which is a form of corruption (Transparency International, 2010b).In all the examples of data abuse by trusted official who are responsible for carrying day to day official work fails to uphold the ACS code of primacy of the public interest and ACS code of honesty. In the case of warrant for internet user including journalist and whistle-blowers, the government officials who are involved with this act violated the ACS code of primacy of public interest, code of enhancement of quality of life, code of professionalism and cod of honesty (Australian Computer Society, 2014). Collection of personal information without consent of the public violates their right to privacy. The contract based theory implies that all humans are entitled to social-contracts and individual rights like life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. It is the obligation of individual to take participation in society to strengthen the relationship with others. If there is no freedom, then there is no privacy and no relationship in the society that’s why every people like democracy rather than autocratic system. If the government becomes autocratic, it starts spying on us to control the activities of public against government. Countries where government controls large parts of media and public activities tend to have higher levels of corruption (Djankov, 2006).The businesses operated by public will suffer a lot (Dentist,tuckshop cited on web blacklist, 2009).The duty based ethical theory suggests that its duty of governments to respect, protect, promote, and fulfill human rights is the foundation of this human rights framework with international human rights laws and standards on freedom of expression and privacy. So, the both of these theories acknowledge warrant entire internet users is unethical and ridiculous. According to the utilitarianism theory of ethics, spying on individual life and track down of internet users activities everyday and perform a lot of analysis on their data to manipulate the day of tomorrow is really a disgusting things that violates the Maslow’s hierarchy because ‘WE ARE HUMAN, NOT ANIMALS’.Warrant Entire Internet is not a solution.
As far as the case is concerned about Warrant Entire Internet,from another aspect of utilitarianism theory of ethics, the ethical background of warrant for internet users can be viewed positively. Nowadays, governments are fighting against the domestic and outside terrorism. Terrorist uses the public to destroy the infrastructure of government and harm the public. Terrorists commits the cybercrime by doing change of identity, due to which it is impossible to track down if only following them, to track down the terrorism they do, it is necessary to filter the information of gateway(ISPs) so that suspected can be handcuff to prevent the terrorist attack (Telecommunications data retention-an overview, 2014). If terrorist attack happen by any means, then it will be very bad for humanity. Warrant entire internet users creates alert level in the society. General people don’t use the internet for the crime purpose. By using this law, government can track the possible social, national and international security risks. Preventive action against those activities helps to create the safe world. However, it is unethical to compromise the privacy in the name of security according to Kantianism (Kant, 1964).New alternatives of Warrant Entire Internet should be proposed.
Conclusion-Warrant Entire Internet
As far as the case is concerned about Warrant Entire Internet,according to the ethical theory of deontology and contract based ethical theories, the act of issuing warrant for internet users including journalist and whistle-blowers is unethical and against the freedom of people as well as humanity as it infringed the public’s right of privacy and right to freedom of expression. However, it produces positive results in the society to track down the possible attack of terrorist and crime by following them. The secret information about rendezvous of suspects can be identified easily. But, it creates the negative effect on public having paranoia of being followed which leads to autocracy in society and limit the activities against the government wrong decision. It gives the sense of insane public with the attitude of revolt and more focused attacked by terrorists. There will be a lot of possibilities of misuse of data by trusted insiders. Control of media and press is a kind of dictatorship which leads the society in backward direction. So, in most of the cases, it produces negative effects in the society which opposes utilitarianism. Therefore, warrant for internet user is against the freedom.Warrant Entire Internet is against the public right.